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1. Use unit tests: Unit tests are essential for testing individual components or functions in isolation. They help identify bugs and ensure that each component works as expected.

2. Use end-to-end (E2E) tests: E2E tests simulate real user interactions and test the application as a whole. They help identify issues with the integration of different components and ensure that the application functions correctly from the user’s perspective.

3. Use a testing framework: AngularJS provides a testing framework called Karma, which is specifically designed for testing AngularJS applications. Karma allows you to run tests in multiple browsers and provides useful features like code coverage and continuous integration.

4. Mock dependencies: When testing AngularJS applications, it is common to have dependencies on external services or APIs. Mocking these dependencies allows you to isolate the component being tested and ensure that it functions correctly regardless of the state of the external services.

5. Use dependency injection: AngularJS’s dependency injection system makes it easy to inject mock dependencies during testing. This allows you to replace real dependencies with mock objects or stubs, making it easier to test individual components.

6. Test for different scenarios: It is important to test your application for different scenarios and edge cases. This includes testing for different input values, error conditions, and boundary cases. This helps ensure that your application handles all possible scenarios correctly.

7. Use code coverage tools: Code coverage tools like Istanbul or Karma’s built-in coverage reporter can help you identify areas of your code that are not covered by tests. Aim for high code coverage to ensure that all parts of your application are thoroughly tested.

8. Automate your tests: Automating your tests allows you to run them regularly and catch any issues early on. Continuous integration tools like Jenkins or Travis CI can be used to automatically run your tests whenever changes are made to the codebase.

9. Keep tests independent and isolated: Each test should be independent of other tests and should not rely on the state or results of previous tests. This ensures that tests can be run in any order and that failures in one test do not affect the results of other tests.

10. Regularly review and update tests: As your application evolves, it is important to regularly review and update your tests to ensure they are still relevant and cover all the necessary functionality. This includes updating tests when new features are added or existing features are modified.

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